Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
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|Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
ڤرتي اسلام س-مليسيا
Parti Islam Se-Malaysia
மலேசிய இஸ்லாமிய கட்சி
|Leader||Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat (Spiritual Advisor)
Abdul Hadi Awang (President)
|Deputy President||Mohamad Sabu|
|Headquarters||Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia|
|Youth wing||Dewan Pemuda PAS|
|National affiliation||Barisan Nasional (1974–78)
Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah(1989–1996)
Barisan Alternatif (1999–2004)
Pakatan Rakyat (2008–present)
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|Politics of Malaysia
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
The Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (Jawi: ڤرتي اسلام س-مليسيا, Malay: Parti Islam Se-Malaysia, Chinese: 马来西亚伊斯兰党, Tamil: மலேசிய இஸ்லாமிய கட்சி) commonly known as PAS or Pas, is an Islamist political party in Malaysia and is currently headed by Dato’ Seri Abdul Hadi Awang. PAS positions itself as a political party that aims to establish Malaysia as a country based on Islamic legal theory derived from the primary sources of Islam, the Quran, Sunnah as well as Hadiths, as opposed to Barisan Nasional‘s Islam Hadhari, which PAS sees as based on a watered-down understanding of Islam.
The party enjoys strong support from the northern rural and conservative states such as Kelantan and Terengganu and it also enjoys strong support from developed state such as Selangor. It is also the first opposition party in independent Malaysia’s history to defeat the Barisan Nasional coalition in a Malay dominated state. PAS, together with Parti Keadilan Rakyat (known as PKR), and Democratic Action Party (known as DAP) formed part of a coalition called Pakatan Rakyat following the 2008 election. Together, Pakatan Rakyat now controls three states in Malaysia which are Kelantan,Selangor and Penang. Now, many young people from other states support this party such as Kedah, Pahang, Perak and Johor.
- 1 History
- 2 Criticisms towards UMNO-led Barisan National government
- 3 Political views
- 4 Reaching out to non-Muslims
- 5 PAS Leaders
- 6 PAS members of the 13th Parliament of Malaysia
- 7 General election results
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes and references
- 10 External links
The formation of Hizbul Muslimin
In March 1947, the first Pan-Islamic Malaysian conference at Madrasah Ma’ahad al-Ehya as-Sharif at Gunung Semanggul, Perak, was held. The conference was sponsored by Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya (PKMM) under the leadership of Dr. Burhanuddin al-Helmy. The conference set out to address the economic problems faced by the Malay-Muslims. It was meant to bring together the more politically active and progressive Islamic movements and thinkers in the country. As a result of this conference, the Majlis Agama Tertinggi (Supreme Religious Council, MATA) of Malaya was formed.
MATA began organising political events and meetings for Malay-Muslim activists to meet and discuss their plans for the future and the need to mobilise the masses. The Council also organised a conference on March 13–16, 1948 which discussed local and international issues which are of concern to the public. The conference participants felt that UMNO was not doing enough to raise important issues in public and that the conservative-nationalists were not doing enough to stand up for Malay-Muslim rights. Needless to say, the UMNO representatives at MATA were not happy with the tone of discussion set by the Islamists, which was too revolutionary and militant for their taste. The UMNO delegates reported their findings and observations to the party leaders. In due course, UMNO leader Dato Onn Jaafar began to issue warnings about the “threat from the mountain” (a reference to Gunung Semanggul).
The Parti Orang Muslimin Malaya (Hizbul Muslimin) was formed on March 17, 1948. Syeikh Abdullah Fahim, the paternal grandfather of former Prime MinisterAbdullah Ahmad Badawi, played a major role in its formation. After the second conference it declared that MATA should be reorganised as an Islamic political party. With the formation of Hizbul Muslimin, all political activities were transferred to the organisation. MATA served as the party’s religious affairs bureau. However, the first Islamist party in Malaya was not destined to last long, as they were banned by the British authorities anxious to retain control of the territories, alleging that Hizbul Muslimin have ties with the Communist Party of Malaya.
Demise and revival
Many members of Hizbul Muslimin escaped the purge of the British and joined UMNO. When the ulama faction in UMNO broke away from the party, they formed an association called Persatuan Islam Sa-Malaya (PIS) (Pan-Islamic Malayan Association), abbreviated as PAS. At the time, the association charter allowed for dual membership in PAS and UMNO and thus many PAS members thought of themselves as UMNO members and vice-versa. Eventually, the dual-membership clause in the party charter was revoked and PAS began to emerge as a distinct entity. For the sake of contesting in the general election of 1955, the party was re-registered under the name Pan-Islamic Malayan Party (PIMP). The name was later changed to Parti Islam Se-Malaysiaduring the Asri Muda era in the 1970s.
In 1999, riding a groundswell of popular protest after the arrest and conviction of former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim, PAS allied itself with the Democratic Action Party (DAP) andKeadilan (PKR), founded by Anwar Ibrahim‘s wife Wan Azizah by forming a coalition known as Barisan Alternatif. In the general election, PAS took over Terengganu from the Barisan Nasional.
In the 2004 Malaysian general election, the party’s strength was greatly reduced. It won merely seven parliamentary seats, a significant decrease from the 27 parliamentary seats it had won in the 1999 general election. The party leader, Datuk Seri Abdul Hadi Awang even lost his parliamentary seat. PAS also lost control of Terengganu but retained control of Kelantan with a very slim majority of 24 out of 45 seats. . The party’s majority in Kelantan’s state assembly was further reduced to 23 seats following the Pengkalan Pasir by-election in 2005 which left them with the majority of only one seat in the state assembly.
In the recent 2008 Malaysian general election, PAS once again allied with the DAP and Anwar Ibrahim’s PKR in an alliance known as Pakatan Rakyat. The party made a comeback in Kelantan, winning 38 out of 45 seats as well as managing to take control of the west coast state of Kedah, and formed coalition governments in Penang, Perak and Selangor, even providing Perak with its Chief Minister, though he was toppled following a series of defections in the state assembly the following year. The party also increased its share of MPs in the Malaysian Parliament from seven to 23.