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Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan

30 Nov

 

Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan
جماعتِ اسلامی
Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan flag.PNG
Founder Sayyid Abul A’la Maududi
Ameer Syed Munawar Hasan
General Secretary Liaqat Baloch
Naib Ameer Siraj ul Haq,
Khurshid Ahmed,
Muhammad Aslam Saleemi,
Muhammad Kamal.
Founded 26 August 1941
Headquarters Lahore, Pakistan
Ideology Islamism
Social conservatism
Islamic democracy
Political position Right-wing
International affiliation Muslim Brotherhood
Colors Green, white, blue
National Assembly
4 / 342
KPK Assembly
8 / 124
Election symbol
Balance
Website
http://jamaat.org
Part of the Politics series
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The Jamaat-e-Islami (Urdu: جماعتِ اسلامی;, “Islamic Party” abbreviation, JI) is a social conservative and Islamist political party, advocating for an Islamic and democratic form of government in Pakistan. JI was founded in 1941 in Lahore by Muslim theologian and socio-political philosopher Abul Ala Maududi. The party is led by an Emir (Leader). Syed Munawar Hasan is currently the Emir of Jamaat-e-Islami. JI is headquartered in Mansoorah, District Lahore.

Founded during British control in India, the JI moved its organisation after the Indian partition to the newly created state ofPakistan, initially setting up its organizational mass in West-Pakistan. The members who remained in India regrouped to form an independent organisation called Jamaat-e-Islami Hind. During the Bangladesh Liberation War, the JI opposed the independence of Bangladesh, but established itself there as an independent political party, the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami after 1975. The JI maintains close ties with international Muslim groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood. The JI is a vanguard party: its members form an elite with “affiliates” and then “sympathizers” beneath them.

The Jamaat’s objective is establishment of an Islamic state, governed by Sharia law. The JI opposes ideologies such as capitalism, socialism and secularism; and practices such as bank interest and liberalist social mores, but the party advocates democracy as an integral part of Islamic political ideals.

 

 

History

The Jamaat-e-Islami was founded at Islamia Park, Lahore on 26 August 1941 as a movement to promote Socio-Political Islam. 75 people were present at its first meeting. Before the foundation of Jamaat, Sayyid Abul A’la Maududi was known for his writings about the role of Islam in South Asia. A proponent of the ideological state, Maududi played an important and contentious role during the era of Pakistan Movement. His ideology has since been influential among Islamist groups around the world, most famously the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt.

Abul Ala Maududi adopted Islamist ideology after analysing many factors including the Khilafat Movement, the end of the Ottoman Caliphate by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the leadership crisis in the Muslim world, Indian Nationalism’s influence over Muslims, and the attitude of the Indian National Congress and Hindus. At last in 1940 (when the All India Muslim League passed the Pakistan Resolution) he propagated among Muslims that they are not just a nation and that their destination is not only the establishment of a national government, but also as a preacher and missionary nation.

Maududi wrote articles about political issues. He gave detailed discussions about nationalism and countered the propaganda of congressional scholars, who were saying that all the people of the sub-continent were one nation, and trying to gather everyone under the leadership of Congress against the British government. Maududi condemned them by saying that these nationalists were asking for the independence which he considered even worse than British rule. He considered them equal to Robert Clive, and Arthur Wellesley, and Muslims who were following them were not less than Mir Jafar and Mir Sadiq. The situation and circumstances were different, but he believed the nature of the rivalry and treason were the same thing. He not only rejected them but countered them by saying that Nationalism and Communism are not different than the Shuddhi Movement. He said that there was no difference in results and that one should resist all of them. Due to such views of Maududi, Mohammad Iqbal said in one meeting to leave Congress’ scholars for Maududi.

Husain Ahmad Madani supported Nationalism and derived his reason from the Constitution of Medina. Maududi rejected his views and argued that the Charter is not about setting combined government, combined council, combined courts, combined party, combined society, combined education or majority based political system.

Zafar Ahmed Ansari, who was Joint Secretary of the All India Muslim League, analysed the articles related to nationalism and concluded that it was not only a discussion, but it also strikes the ideology of Congress and Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind.

Maududi believed the Indian Congress to be a hypocritical organisation and was a vociferous critic of Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru. He argued that Nehru openly opposed religion and was an enemy of any division on basis of faith. He said that Nehru evaluated that Muslims were spiritually weak and was running a scheme to merge Islam into the Hindu faith.

Political struggle

Jamaat has been started activities in Pakistan by voluntarily serving in relief camps for refugees. Jamaat increased the social work, started gathering skins of sacrificial animals on Eid-ul-Azha, and opened many hospitals and clinics.

In 1953 JI led a campaign against the Ahmadiyya community in Pakistan resulting in the Lahore riots of 1953 and selective declaration of martial law. Maududi was arrested by the military deployment headed by Lieutenant General Azam Khan, which also included Rahimuddin Khan, and sentenced to death on the charge of writing a seditious pamphlet about the Ahmadiyya issue. He turned down the opportunity to file a petition for mercy, expressing a preference for death rather than seeking clemency. Strong public pressure ultimately convinced the government to commute his death sentence to life imprisonment. Eventually, his sentence was annulled.

As a result of the demand for an Islamic state, many activists of Jamaat were sent to prison. Despite all this, Jamaat continued its struggle until Chaudhry Muhammad Ali made the Constitution of Pakistan of 1956, which was similar to the ideology of Jamaat. Jamaat ran a strong movement in favour of a separate voting system for different religious communities in the days of Suhrawardy’s government. However, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy arranged a session of the National Assembly at Dhaka and by making an alliance with Republicans passed the bill for a mixed voting system.

Jamaat formed an alliance with the Muslim League, headed by Abdul Qayyum Khan, and with the Nizam-e-Islami party, led by Chudhary Muhammad Ali in 1958. They criticised activities of Iskander Mirza. Due to the activities of this alliance, the reputation of Iskander Mirza was strongly damaged and seeing no future he decided to enforce martial law in the country.

After martial law of 1958 Muhammad Ayub Khan met with Maulana Maududi and advised him not to take part in politics. When Ayub Khan left a ban over political parties, Jamaat was first to be active. In the presidential elections of 1964–65 Jamaat supported Fatima Jinnah. In 1965 during the Indo-Pak war, Jamaat helped the government in appealing to the people for jihad, helping war victims and getting financial and moral support from Arab countries. The leadership of Jamaat presented patriotic speeches fromRadio Pakistan and representatives of Jamaat headed to central Asia for back up of central Asians. Jamaat was the major spirit in the Pakistan Democratic Movement (PDM) against Ayub Khan. When Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Maulana Bhashani raised the slogan of Socialism during this movement, Jamaat resisted it.

In the manifesto for Pakistani general election, 1970 Jamaat supported Provincial freedom (not up to six points) and declared the Quran and Sunnah as sources of law. Separating judiciary from administration and guarantee of basic rights of minorities was also included in this manifesto. A strong relationship with the Muslim world was purposed in foreign policy. Jamaat was against the, nationalisation but in favour of seizing the illegal property. Maximum ownership of land was set to be 100 acres and 200 acres for rainy and canal areas respectively so that the uneven economic condition can be controlled. The program of economic justice was purposed instead of economic equality and promised equal employment opportunities for jobless people. The Bonus Share Scheme was announced so that factory workers can own shares of their company. Just before the elections, Nawabzada Nasrullah Khan broke the alliance which cost to Jamaat-e-Islami who was competing Pakistan Peoples Party and Awami League having socialism and provincial slogans and announcing drastic changes. Jamaat only won 4 seats of National and 4 of Provincial Assembly.

Jamaat-e-Islami struggled until the last moment against the separation movement of East Pakistan by the Awami League. Islami Jamiat-e-Talaba organised the Al-Badar force and fought against the separatist army Mukti Bahini. In this liberation war of 1971, members of Jamaat-e-Islami have been accused of actively collaborating with the Pakistani army in killing millions of innocent Bangalees and raping thousands of innocent women.[1] [2]

On health grounds, Maududi excused to lead the movement in 1972 and requested the top elected body of the movement Majlis-e-Shoura to select someone else to perform the duties of “Ameer”. In October 1972, Mian Tufail Mohammad was elected as Ameer.

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s government Vice Ameer of Jamaat Dr. Nazir Ahmed was assassinated and many activists, including members of Islami Jamiat-e-Talaba, were sent to prison. Many members were politically victimised. Even after that, the Peoples party failed to get power in universities and colleges, and youth started becoming critics of Bhutto. That struggle gave birth to many leaders who are now in the front line of mainstream parties.

By 1976 Jamaat’s street power multiplied by 2,000,000 new entrants when it swore to organise marches to Islamabad for implementing Sharia. In 1977, Maududi cobbled together a grand alliance of rightist parties and launched a “civil disobedience campaign,” leading to his arrest. Jamaat had become so powerful by then in the Islamist ranks that the Sunni government of Saudi Arabia intervened to secure Maududi’s release by dangling the spectre of “revolution” in Pakistan. Jamaat also played a vital role in thePakistan National Alliance‘s struggle against Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s government during 1977.

Jamaat initially supported General Zia-ul-Haq as did other parties of the PNA but, when the general postponed elections several times, Mian Tufail Mohammad pressured him for elections. Abdul Ghafoor Ahmed kept criticising General Zia for his dictatorial policies.

Islami Jamiat-e-Talaba started a movement against the government for banning student unions. Pro-Jamaat labour unions also rose against the government, but unlike many other parties Jamaat did not participate in the Pakistan Peoples Party‘s Movement for the Restoration of Democracy. Jamaat-e-Islami played a key role in Jihad against Soviet War in Afghanistan. One of the strongest reasons for working with General Zia was Zia’s and Jamaat’s involvement in Afghan Jihad against Soviet Union.

In 1987 Mian Tufail declined further service in the post because of a long ailment, and Qazi Hussain Ahmad was elected to the top position.

After General Zia’s death, Jamaat joined a Right-wing alliance Islami Jamhoori Ittehad (IJI) with the Pakistan Muslim League. During Nawaz Sharif government Jamaat refused to join the cabinet. Jamaat announced that the Peoples Party and the Muslim League are equal evils. Jamaat tried to raise as a third power in Pakistani general election, 1993, but won only 3 seats in the National assembly.

Jamaat boycotted the Pakistani general election, 1997. Therefore, Jamaat lost representation in Assemblies, but their importance remained as a pressure group. During Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee‘s arrival at Lahore, Jamaat protested and thousands of workers was arrested by the police.

Jamaat welcomed General Pervez Musharraf at first but turned against him once Musharraf started Secular reforms and joined War on terrorism.

In 2002, Jamaat formed an alliance with other religious parties naming Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA) and got 53 seats out of 272 elected member’s seats. This alliance took majority in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. Jamaat constantly criticised war on terror and arranged public protest against the decision and denounced President Musharraf for “betraying” the Taliban and siding with the US against them. Jamaat also denounces the presence of American troops and agencies in Pakistan. Jamaat opposed the Women’s Protection Bill in 2006. Samia Raheel Qazi, MP and daughter of Qazi Hussain Ahmed stated, “We have been against the bill from the start. The Hudood Ordinance was devised by a highly qualified group of Ulema (Islamic scholars), and is beyond question”. Jamaat-e-Islami believes that the bill did not need scrapping, but needed to be applied in a fairer way, and understood properly by judges. Jamaat-e-Islami’s senior Minister of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province Siraj ul Haq resigned from his ministry after he was appointed as provincial ‘ameer’ of the JI. Under the terms of this position in the party, an Ameer cannot hold a political office. His resignation as Senior Minister coincided with a drone attack on madrassa in Bajour Agency. Jamaat was also against the operation of Lal Masjid and Qazi Hussain Ahmad gave his resignation from the National Assembly when visiting the camp of victims of the Operation. Jamaat participated actively in the struggle of restoration of Judges.

Jamaat-e-Islami and Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf boycotted Pakistani general election, 2008 held under President General Musharraf.

Getting re-elected for four times (1992, 1994, 1999, 2003), in 2008, Qazi Hussain Ahmad excused to be elected once more and members of Jamaat elected Syed Munawar Hassan as the new Ameer.

Organizations

Jamaat-e-Islami has unions for doctors, teachers, lawyers, farmers, workers and women. Its most famous organisation is Islami Jamiat-e-Talaba (IJT), which is a Students’ union. The youth wing is working under the name of Shabab e Milli.

Think tanks

Idara Marif-e-Islami Lahore, Islamic Research Academy Karachi, Idara Taleemi Tehqeeq Lahore, Mehran Academy, Institute of Regional Studies are working independently but weekly and monthly publications, newsletters, research reports of these institutions deal with the solutions of theoretical and practical issues faced by Islamists and particularly Jamaat-e-Islami.

Education

Jamaat created a department named “Islami Nizamat-e-Taleem” headed by Abdul Ghafoor Ahmed, it is responsible for creating educational courses. This department is in contact with 600 different schools. A new sub-department is introduced with the name of Bethak School, running 63 schools in different parts of the country. Under Rabita-ul-Madaris Al-Islamia 164 Madrasas are working with JI’s support. Jamaat is also running the “Hira Pakistan Project” and “Al Ghazali Trust”.

Personalities

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Arefin, Shamsul, ASM. Muktijuddho ’71: Punished War Criminals Under Dalal Law. Bangladesh Research and Publications.
  2. Jump up^ “Bangladesh Genocide Archive”. Bangladesh Genocide Archive. Retrieved 9 March 2013.

External links

 
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Posted by on November 30, 2012 in Uncategorized

 

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